Redis集群搭建

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2021-09-21 / 0 评论 / 42 阅读 / 正在检测是否收录...
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主从复制概述

主从复制,是指将一台Redis服务器的数据,复制到其他的Redis服务器。前者称为主节点(master),后者称为从节点(slave);数据的复制是单向的,只能由主节点到从节点。Master以写为主,Slave已读为主
默认情况下,每台Redis服务器都是主节点;且一个主节点可以有多个从节点(或没有从节点),但一个从节点只能有一个主节点。

主从复制的作用
主从复制的作用主要包括:
数据冗余:主从复制实现了数据的热备份,是持久化之外的一种数据冗余方式。
故障恢复:当主节点出现问题时,可以由从节点提供服务,实现快速的故障恢复;实际上是一种服务的冗余。
负载均衡:在主从复制的基础上,配合读写分离,可以由主节点提供写服务,由从节点提供读服务(即写Redis数据时应用连接主节点,读Redis数据时应用连接从节点),分担服务器负载;尤其是在写少读多的场景下,通过多个从节点分担读负载,可以大大提高Redis服务器的并发量。
高可用基石:除了上述作用以外,主从复制还是哨兵和集群能够实施的基础,因此说主从复制是Redis高可用的基础。

环境配置

只配置从库,不用配置主库

127.0.0.1:6379> info replication
# Replication
role:master
connected_slaves:0
master_replid:f47467f195c4ed51c50938a60c17de4b01bb0f72
master_replid2:0000000000000000000000000000000000000000
master_repl_offset:0
second_repl_offset:-1
repl_backlog_active:0
repl_backlog_size:1048576
repl_backlog_first_byte_offset:0
repl_backlog_histlen:0

复制3个配置文件,然后修改对应的信息
1、端口
2、pid名字
3、log文件名字
4、 dump.rdp名字
一主二从
从机

127.0.0.1:6380> SLAVEOF 127.0.0.1 6379         #slaveof host 6379
OK
127.0.0.1:6380> info replication
# Replication
role:slave
master_host:127.0.0.1
master_port:6379
master_link_status:up
master_last_io_seconds_ago:2
master_sync_in_progress:0
slave_repl_offset:42
slave_priority:100
slave_read_only:1
connected_slaves:0
master_replid:da314952dadd611849cb227b8706af7bcd8af486
master_replid2:0000000000000000000000000000000000000000
master_repl_offset:42
second_repl_offset:-1
repl_backlog_active:1
repl_backlog_size:1048576
repl_backlog_first_byte_offset:1
repl_backlog_histlen:42

127.0.0.1:6381> SLAVEOF 127.0.0.1 6379              #slaveof host 6379
OK
127.0.0.1:6381> info replication
# Replication
role:slave
master_host:127.0.0.1
master_port:6379
master_link_status:up
master_last_io_seconds_ago:8
master_sync_in_progress:0
slave_repl_offset:224
slave_priority:100
slave_read_only:1
connected_slaves:0
master_replid:da314952dadd611849cb227b8706af7bcd8af486
master_replid2:0000000000000000000000000000000000000000
master_repl_offset:224
second_repl_offset:-1
repl_backlog_active:1
repl_backlog_size:1048576
repl_backlog_first_byte_offset:113
repl_backlog_histlen:112

建议在配置文件中设置,用命令的话是暂时的
主机可写,从机可读

如果主机断开连接,从机依旧可以连接到主机,但是没有写的权限,一旦主机恢复,从机就可以再次读取主机信息。
如果是用命令行配置的从机,一旦断开连接就会变成主机,需要重新配置,但是在配置文件配置的就不会出现这种情况

主从复制(复制原理)

Slave启动成功连接到master后会发送一个sync同步命令
Master接到命令,启动后台的存盘进程,同时收集所有接收到的用于修改数据集命令,在后台进程执行完毕之后, master将传送整个数据文件到slave , 并完成一-次完全同步。
全量复制:而slave服务在接收到数据库文件数据后,将其存盘并加载到内存中。
增量复制: Master继续将新的所有收集到的修改命令依次传给slave ,完成同步
但是只要是重新连接master , 一次完全同步(全量复制)将被自动执行

层层链路

上一个M链接下一个S

这个时候如果主机(79)宕机,我们可以用SLAVEOF no one80从机就会变成主机,如果79主机恢复,需要从新配置

哨兵模式

主从切换技术的方法是:当主服务器宕机后,需要手动把一台从服务器切换为主服务器,这就需要人工干预 ,费事费力,还会造成一段时间内服务不可用。这不是一种推荐的方式,更多时候,我们优先考虑哨兵模式。Redis从2.8开始正式提供 了Sentinel (哨兵)架构来解决这个问题。
谋朝篡位的自动版,能够后台监控主机是否故障,如果故障了根据投票数自动将从库转换为主库.
哨兵模式是一种特殊的模式,首先Redis提供了哨兵的命令,哨兵是一一个独立的进程 ,作为进程,它会独立运行。其原理是哨兵通过发送命令,等待Redis服务器响应,从而监控运行的多个Redis实例。

这里的哨兵有两个作用

  • 通过发送命令,让Redis服务器返回监控其运行状态,包括主服务器和从服务器。
  • 当哨兵监测到master宕机,会自动将slave切换成master ,然后通过发布订阅模式通知其他的从服务器,修改配置文件,让它们切换主机。
    然而一个哨兵进程对Redis服务器进行监控,可能会出现问题,为此,我们可以使用多个哨兵进行监控。各个哨兵之间还会进行监控,这样就形成了多哨兵模式。


假设主服务器宕机,哨兵1先检测到这个结果,系统并不会马上进行failover过程,仅仅是哨兵1主观的认为主服务器不可用,这个现象成为主观下线。当后面的哨兵也检测到主服务器不可用,并且数量达到一定值时,那么哨兵之间就会进行一次投票 ,投票的结果由一个哨兵发起,进行failover[故障转移]操作。切换成功后,就会通过发布订阅模式,让各个哨兵把自己监控的从服务器实现切换主机,这个过程称为客观下线。

测试

配置哨兵配置文件
vim sentinel.conf

# 监听端口
port 26379
# 后台运行
daemonize yes
#pid文件
pidfile /var/run/redis-sentinel.pid
# 哨兵得日志文件
logfile "sentinel.log"
# 日志文件存放路径
dir /www/server/redis/
# 设置初始master以及法定认为下线人数:
#sentinel monitor <master-name> <ip> <redis-port> <quorum>
sentinel monitor mymaster 192.168.0.10 6379 1
# master主观下线时间,默认30秒,30秒内没有回复pong,则认为下线了
#sentinel down-after-milliseconds <master-name> <milliseconds>
sentinel down-after-milliseconds mymaster 30000
# 指定故障转移超时时间,默认为3分钟
sentinel failover-timeout mymaster 180000
# 设置通知脚本,发生故障转移可以向管理员发送通知(可选)
sentinel notification-script mymaster /www/server/redis/notify.sh
# 禁止修改脚本,避免脚本重置
sentinel deny-scripts-reconfig yes

启动哨兵模式

[root@cs bin]# redis-sentinel xhconfig/sentinel.conf 

如果master节点断开了,这个时候就会从从机随机选一个从机当主机

如果主机回来了,只能归并到新的主机下,当作从机

优点:
1、哨兵集群,基于主从复制模式,所有的主从配置优点,它全有
2、主从可以切换,故障可以转移,系统的可用性就会更好
3、哨兵模式就是主从模式的升级,手动到自动,更加健壮!
缺点:
1、Redis 不好啊在线扩容的,集群容量一旦到达上限,在线扩容就十分麻烦!
2、实现哨兵模式的配置其实是很麻烦的,里面有很多选择!

哨兵全部配置

[root@cs bin]# cat /opt/redis-5.0.13/sentinel.conf 
# Example sentinel.conf

# *** IMPORTANT ***
#
# By default Sentinel will not be reachable from interfaces different than
# localhost, either use the 'bind' directive to bind to a list of network
# interfaces, or disable protected mode with "protected-mode no" by
# adding it to this configuration file.
#
# Before doing that MAKE SURE the instance is protected from the outside
# world via firewalling or other means.
#
# For example you may use one of the following:
#
# bind 127.0.0.1 192.168.1.1
#
# protected-mode no

# port <sentinel-port>
# The port that this sentinel instance will run on
port 26379

# By default Redis Sentinel does not run as a daemon. Use 'yes' if you need it.
# Note that Redis will write a pid file in /var/run/redis-sentinel.pid when
# daemonized.
daemonize no

# When running daemonized, Redis Sentinel writes a pid file in
# /var/run/redis-sentinel.pid by default. You can specify a custom pid file
# location here.
pidfile /var/run/redis-sentinel.pid

# Specify the log file name. Also the empty string can be used to force
# Sentinel to log on the standard output. Note that if you use standard
# output for logging but daemonize, logs will be sent to /dev/null
logfile ""

# sentinel announce-ip <ip>
# sentinel announce-port <port>
#
# The above two configuration directives are useful in environments where,
# because of NAT, Sentinel is reachable from outside via a non-local address.
#
# When announce-ip is provided, the Sentinel will claim the specified IP address
# in HELLO messages used to gossip its presence, instead of auto-detecting the
# local address as it usually does.
#
# Similarly when announce-port is provided and is valid and non-zero, Sentinel
# will announce the specified TCP port.
#
# The two options don't need to be used together, if only announce-ip is
# provided, the Sentinel will announce the specified IP and the server port
# as specified by the "port" option. If only announce-port is provided, the
# Sentinel will announce the auto-detected local IP and the specified port.
#
# Example:
#
# sentinel announce-ip 1.2.3.4

# dir <working-directory>
# Every long running process should have a well-defined working directory.
# For Redis Sentinel to chdir to /tmp at startup is the simplest thing
# for the process to don't interfere with administrative tasks such as
# unmounting filesystems.
dir /tmp

# sentinel monitor <master-name> <ip> <redis-port> <quorum>
#
# Tells Sentinel to monitor this master, and to consider it in O_DOWN
# (Objectively Down) state only if at least <quorum> sentinels agree.
#
# Note that whatever is the ODOWN quorum, a Sentinel will require to
# be elected by the majority of the known Sentinels in order to
# start a failover, so no failover can be performed in minority.
#
# Replicas are auto-discovered, so you don't need to specify replicas in
# any way. Sentinel itself will rewrite this configuration file adding
# the replicas using additional configuration options.
# Also note that the configuration file is rewritten when a
# replica is promoted to master.
#
# Note: master name should not include special characters or spaces.
# The valid charset is A-z 0-9 and the three characters ".-_".
sentinel monitor mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379 2

# sentinel auth-pass <master-name> <password>
#
# Set the password to use to authenticate with the master and replicas.
# Useful if there is a password set in the Redis instances to monitor.
#
# Note that the master password is also used for replicas, so it is not
# possible to set a different password in masters and replicas instances
# if you want to be able to monitor these instances with Sentinel.
#
# However you can have Redis instances without the authentication enabled
# mixed with Redis instances requiring the authentication (as long as the
# password set is the same for all the instances requiring the password) as
# the AUTH command will have no effect in Redis instances with authentication
# switched off.
#
# Example:
#
# sentinel auth-pass mymaster MySUPER--secret-0123passw0rd

# sentinel down-after-milliseconds <master-name> <milliseconds>
#
# Number of milliseconds the master (or any attached replica or sentinel) should
# be unreachable (as in, not acceptable reply to PING, continuously, for the
# specified period) in order to consider it in S_DOWN state (Subjectively
# Down).
#
# Default is 30 seconds.
sentinel down-after-milliseconds mymaster 30000

# sentinel parallel-syncs <master-name> <numreplicas>
#
# How many replicas we can reconfigure to point to the new replica simultaneously
# during the failover. Use a low number if you use the replicas to serve query
# to avoid that all the replicas will be unreachable at about the same
# time while performing the synchronization with the master.
sentinel parallel-syncs mymaster 1

# sentinel failover-timeout <master-name> <milliseconds>
#
# Specifies the failover timeout in milliseconds. It is used in many ways:
#
# - The time needed to re-start a failover after a previous failover was
#   already tried against the same master by a given Sentinel, is two
#   times the failover timeout.
#
# - The time needed for a replica replicating to a wrong master according
#   to a Sentinel current configuration, to be forced to replicate
#   with the right master, is exactly the failover timeout (counting since
#   the moment a Sentinel detected the misconfiguration).
#
# - The time needed to cancel a failover that is already in progress but
#   did not produced any configuration change (SLAVEOF NO ONE yet not
#   acknowledged by the promoted replica).
#
# - The maximum time a failover in progress waits for all the replicas to be
#   reconfigured as replicas of the new master. However even after this time
#   the replicas will be reconfigured by the Sentinels anyway, but not with
#   the exact parallel-syncs progression as specified.
#
# Default is 3 minutes.
sentinel failover-timeout mymaster 180000

# SCRIPTS EXECUTION
#
# sentinel notification-script and sentinel reconfig-script are used in order
# to configure scripts that are called to notify the system administrator
# or to reconfigure clients after a failover. The scripts are executed
# with the following rules for error handling:
#
# If script exits with "1" the execution is retried later (up to a maximum
# number of times currently set to 10).
#
# If script exits with "2" (or an higher value) the script execution is
# not retried.
#
# If script terminates because it receives a signal the behavior is the same
# as exit code 1.
#
# A script has a maximum running time of 60 seconds. After this limit is
# reached the script is terminated with a SIGKILL and the execution retried.

# NOTIFICATION SCRIPT
#
# sentinel notification-script <master-name> <script-path>
# 
# Call the specified notification script for any sentinel event that is
# generated in the WARNING level (for instance -sdown, -odown, and so forth).
# This script should notify the system administrator via email, SMS, or any
# other messaging system, that there is something wrong with the monitored
# Redis systems.
#
# The script is called with just two arguments: the first is the event type
# and the second the event description.
#
# The script must exist and be executable in order for sentinel to start if
# this option is provided.
#
# Example:
#
# sentinel notification-script mymaster /var/redis/notify.sh

# CLIENTS RECONFIGURATION SCRIPT
#
# sentinel client-reconfig-script <master-name> <script-path>
#
# When the master changed because of a failover a script can be called in
# order to perform application-specific tasks to notify the clients that the
# configuration has changed and the master is at a different address.
# 
# The following arguments are passed to the script:
#
# <master-name> <role> <state> <from-ip> <from-port> <to-ip> <to-port>
#
# <state> is currently always "failover"
# <role> is either "leader" or "observer"
# 
# The arguments from-ip, from-port, to-ip, to-port are used to communicate
# the old address of the master and the new address of the elected replica
# (now a master).
#
# This script should be resistant to multiple invocations.
#
# Example:
#
# sentinel client-reconfig-script mymaster /var/redis/reconfig.sh

# SECURITY
#
# By default SENTINEL SET will not be able to change the notification-script
# and client-reconfig-script at runtime. This avoids a trivial security issue
# where clients can set the script to anything and trigger a failover in order
# to get the program executed.

sentinel deny-scripts-reconfig yes

# REDIS COMMANDS RENAMING
#
# Sometimes the Redis server has certain commands, that are needed for Sentinel
# to work correctly, renamed to unguessable strings. This is often the case
# of CONFIG and SLAVEOF in the context of providers that provide Redis as
# a service, and don't want the customers to reconfigure the instances outside
# of the administration console.
#
# In such case it is possible to tell Sentinel to use different command names
# instead of the normal ones. For example if the master "mymaster", and the
# associated replicas, have "CONFIG" all renamed to "GUESSME", I could use:
#
# SENTINEL rename-command mymaster CONFIG GUESSME
#
# After such configuration is set, every time Sentinel would use CONFIG it will
# use GUESSME instead. Note that there is no actual need to respect the command
# case, so writing "config guessme" is the same in the example above.
#
# SENTINEL SET can also be used in order to perform this configuration at runtime.
#
# In order to set a command back to its original name (undo the renaming), it
# is possible to just rename a command to itsef:
#
# SENTINEL rename-command mymaster CONFIG CONFIG
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